Water, Waste Water and Organic Waste
Management Company

Waste Water Treatment Plant(WWTP)

Waste Water Treatment Plant(WWTP)

What is WWTP?

A wastewater treatment plant is an advanced form of traditional facilities such as sewage and effluent treatment plants. In WWTP, a combination of various processes such as physical, chemical and biological are used to treat industrial wastewater. We can also say that WWTP is an extension of STP with additional facilities, functions and treatment calibre.

Why we need WWTP over normal STP?

If the industrial outflow of wastewater is of such hazardous nature that can barely be treated with municipal sewage and effluent treatment plants, then why not opt for Kelvin’s Wastewater Treatment Plants ((WWTP)? Wastewater Treatment Plants can lessen the treatment expenses incurred by municipal sewage treatment plants by reducing the pollutant concentrations in the wastewater and providing resultant water capable of being used for varied purposes.

Large industrial undertakings such as petrochemical sites, petroleum refineries and pharmaceutical laboratories may find the disposal of their wastewater a cumbersome process and simple municipal STP may not be enough to meet their disposal requirement. Hence, in order to comply with the local and national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community treatment plants or into rivers, lakes or oceans, they need WWTP. Other industrial processes that produce a lot of waste-waters such as paper and pulp production has created environmental concern, leading to development of processes to clean and recycle the water so that they adhere to pollution control norms before being disposed-off onto the environment. Hence, the role of industrial wastewater treatment plant is immensely important.

How is WWTP process different from STP process?

An industrial wastewater treatment plant includes some of the following activities rather than the conventional processes as in STP:

Wastewater Recycling Technologies available with us:

  • Sand Filtration,
  • Activated Charcoal treatment (Adsorption),
  • Ozonisation (Chemical Oxidation),
  • Ultra Filtration (UF),
  • Reverse Osmosis (RO)
  • Evaporation (If required)
  • ASP : Activated Sludge Process
  • MBBR : Moving Bed Bio reactor
  • SAFF : Submerged aerated Fixed Film
  • SBR : Sequential Bioreactor
  • MBR : Membrane Bio Reactor


Disinfection is the process of destroying pathogenic micro-organisms by physical means. Disinfection is usually the final stage in the wastewater treatment process in order to limit the effects of organic material, suspended solids, and other contaminants. The primary methods of disinfection in the wastewater treatment process are Ultraviolet Irradiation or Disinfection (UV) and chlorination. Although both methods are acceptable and effective, chlorination is typically the most economical method of disinfection.

Wastewater is collected into an aeration tank, where oxygen is introduced to the sewage. This mix utilizes the bacteria and protozoa that feed on organic matter in the wastewater. After the period of agitation has ended, the sludge will settle to the bottom where it is introduced to sewage in the wastewater into a primary clarifier while the wastewater moves on for further treatment.

Extended Aeration is a variation of the activated sludge process with no primary settling. The Extended Aeration process has a 24 hour aerobic retention time which results in the generation of less excess sludge. Extended Aeration is the most popular biological treatment process in package style wastewater treatment which produces a high-quality effluent with ease of installation, operation, low maintenance, and operational costs.

  • Nitrification of wastewater relies on the bio-chemical reaction of the nitrogen in ammonia to nitrite, and eventually nitrate. The organic ammonia present in wastewater can come from multiple sources such as animal proteins, urea, and amino acids. Bacteria then breaks down the ammonia into nitrite.
  • Denitrification is required to remove the toxic nitrate from the wastewater before it can be purified even further. Removing the nitrate requires a conversion to nitrogen gas. This process can only be performed under anaerobic conditions; bacteria present in a near zero oxygen environment.

The coalescence plates (separator used to reduce the distance that an oil droplet travels before it reaches the collection surface) are constructed of materials that are hydrophobic (water repelling) and oleophilic (oil attracting). When the oil droplet comes in contact with the plate, it reaches a space of zero velocity and adheres to the surface. The coalescence surfaces multiply the effectiveness of the natural action of oil and water to separate.

Tertiary treatments are the additional methods and activities applied to polish up the traditional sewage treatment sequence. Tertiary treatment is gaining popularity in industrialized countries and most common technologies are micro filtration or synthetic membranes. The membrane filtration makes the treated wastewater indistinguishable from natural waters. Nitrification and de-nitrification, Ozone treatment, use of Aerobic granulation etc are some of the popular tertiary treatment means and methods in WWTP. The standard tertiary filter system provides filter cell flow division, filtration, air scouring, backwashing, and backwash return of the wastewater.


Brewing & Distilling
Food & Beverage
Metals Finishing
Oil & Gas
Pulp and Paper


Q1. What is a wastewater treatment plant?

Ans. A wastewater treatment plant is a facility that uses a variety of methods (physical, chemical, and biological) to treat industrial effluent and remove pollutants.

Q2. What is the water treatment process?

Ans. Water treatment, often known as water purification, is the process of removing undesired chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended particles, and gases from freshwater. The purification procedure results in potable water that can be used for the intended purpose.

Q3. What are the benefits of Wastewater Treatment?

Ans. Five Benefits of Wastewater Treatment are-

  • Promotes sustainability.
  • Prevents soil degradation.
  • Promotes energy production.
  • Provides clean, safe processed water.
  • Protects public health.

Q4. What are the cheapest wastewater treatment technologies?

Ans. The following are commonly used low-cost treatment techniques for sustainable and cost-effective sanitation and wastewater management:

  • Anaerobic Tanks Phyto depuration and Man-Made/Natural Wetlands
  • System of waste stabilisation
  • Treatment methods that are inexpensive for certain purposes—
  • Wetlands are used to remove nutrients.
  • Acclimatized bioremediation, Phyto-remediation, wetlands, or running wastewater through adsorbing material such as sawdust are all options for heavy metal removal.
  • Imhoff tank followed by wetlands for small-town treatment.
  • Flowing wastewater over limestone slabs reduces acidity.
  • Pathogen removal methods include sand filtration pits and chlorination.

Our Clients